Combine framework is used to perform asynchronous tasks by using event-processing operators. It can be used to perform async operations, UI tasks and network requests. Combine framework is similar to RxSwift. It enables us to process values over time using its declarative Swift API. This declarative API allows us to expose and receive values by using publishers and subscribers respectively. It is described by Apple as,

The Combine framework provides a declarative Swift API for processing values over time. These values can represent many kinds of asynchronous events. Combine declares publishers to expose values that can change over time, and subscribers to receive those values from the publishers.


Publishers are similar to Observables in RxSwift. A publisher expose values that changes in run time to its subscribers. Let's look at below example to understand better,

import Combine

struct Post {
	let caption: String
	let imageURL: URL

let postPublisher = NotificationCenter.Publisher(center: .default, name: Notification.Name("post"), object:nil)
                    .map{(notification)-> String? in
                    	return (notification.object as? Post)?.caption ?? ""

The Publisher watches the changes to the Notification name "post". When the change occurs, it exposes the caption property of the struct Post to its subscriber. Zero/more values can be published. The publisher documentation will provide detailed list of Publisher operators.


Subscribers are similar to Observers in RxSwift. Subscribers receives the changes provided from publishers and performs specified actions. A subscriber can have only one subscription. Subscriber may have a completion block.

let captionLabel = UILabel()
let postCaptionSubscriber = Subscribers.Assign(object: captionLabel, keyPath: \.text)

let post = Post(caption:"Beautiful snaps", imageURL:URL(string: "./hues")!) Notification.Name("post"), object: post)
print("The latest post caption is \(captionLabel.text)") //"The latest post caption is Beautiful snaps"


@Published is a property wrapper that adds a Publisher to any property. Let's look at below example,

class QuestionnaireVC: UIViewController {
    @Published var toAllowSubmit: Bool = false

    @IBOutlet private weak var questionSwitch: UISwitch!
    @IBOutlet private weak var nextButton: UIButton!

    override func viewDidLoad() {
        $toAllowSubmit.receive(on: DispatchQueue.main).assign(to: \.isEnabled, on: nextButton)

    @IBAction func didSwitch(_ switch: UISwitch) {
        toAllowSubmit = switch.isOn

By means of @Published property wrapper, toAllowSubmit receives updates when questionSwitch is turned on and assigns .isEnabled property to nextButton.


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